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The Danish Militia played a major role in repelling the Swedish attackers during the assault on Copenhagen in The Danish Home guard are the most highly trained militia men in the world as of as the receive about 90 hours of training a year in many yearly exercises. These include many exercises such as repelling assaults and RPG fire from afghan irregulares. While Finland employs conscriptionthey do not have separate militia units: all units are organized by and under the command of the Finnish Defence Forces.
All men belong to the reserve until age 50 or 60 depending on rank, and may be called up in case of mobilization. Each reservist is assigned a position in a unit to be activated. However, sincethe FDF does have territorial forcesorganized along the lines of regular infantry formations, which are composed of volunteers. Furthermore, long-range patrol units sissi troopsa type of special forces are assigned to local troops. In history, before Finland became independent, two types of local militias existed: the White Guards and Red Guards, which were non-socialists and socialists, respectively.
White Guards continued their existence as a volunteer militia until the Second World War. However, in separate wartime White Guard units were dissolved and in the Second World War they served at the front, dispersed in regular units. They were dissolved as a condition of peace after the Continuation War.
The first notable militia in French history was the resistance of the Gauls to invasion by the Romans until they were defeated by Julius Caesar. This settled the succession to the French crown and laid the basis for the formation of the modern nation of France. During the French Revolution the National Guard was a political home defense militia. Although defunct from untilthe French National Guard has now been reestablished for homeland security purposes.
The earliest reports of Germanic militias was the system of hundreds described in 98 AD by the Roman historian Tacitus as the centeni. They were similar in nature to the Anglo-Saxon fyrd. Freikorps German for "Free Corps" was originally applied to voluntary armies. These troops were regarded as unreliable by regular armies, so they were mainly used as sentries and for minor duties. During the Napoleonic occupation, organizations such as the Lutzow Free Corps fought against the occupiers and later joined the allied forces as regular soldiers.
However, afterthe term was used for nationalist paramilitary organizations that sprang up around Germany as soldiers returned in defeat from World War I. They were one of the many Weimar paramilitary groups active during that time.
Militia were also used to put down the Bavarian Soviet Republic in They were officially "disbanded" inresulting in the ill-fated Kapp Putsch in March The Einwohnerwehractive in Germany from to was a paramilitary citizens' militia consisting of hundreds of thousands of mostly former servicemen. Inthe Berlin government dissolved the Einwohnerwehr. Many of its members went on to join the Nazi Party.
In the Nazi Party created the Sturmabteilung SA; Storm Detachment; Brownshirtswhich was the first paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party and served as a Nazi militia whose initial assignment was to protect Nazi leaders at rallies and assemblies. The SA also took part in street battles against the forces of rival political parties and violent actions against Jews. In —, as World War II came to a close in Europe, the German high command deployed increasing numbers of Volkssturm units to combat duties.
These regiments were composed of men, women and children too old, young or otherwise unfit for service in the Wehrmacht German Regular Army. As the shortage of manpower became severe, they were used as front line infantry, most often in urban settings.
Due to the physical state of members, almost non-existent training and shortage of weapons, there was not much the Volkssturm could do except act like shields for regular army units. However, armed with Panzerfausts and deeply entrenched, a unit of Volkssturm could cause serious trouble for Soviet armor. The Basij militia founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November  is composed of 10, regular soldiers.
It ultimately draws from about 11 million members, and is subordinate to the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in Iran. In modern times, the Israel Defense Forces IDF is often described as a heavily armed militia, not a full-fledged army, since it is legally and publicly viewed as a defensive force only, and since it relies heavily on the reserve duty of Israeli citizens who are annually called to service for set periods of time, rather than on professional, full-time soldiers.
Since the fall of Gaddafi's rule of Libya in the aftermath of the Libyan Civil War, rebel groups that have contributed to the revolution splintered into self-organized militia movements and have been involved in a feud for control of each city. Mexico has a history of various activities and insurrection by militia and paramilitary groups dating back several hundred years that include the exploits of historical figures such as Captain Manuel Pineda Munoz and Francisco "Pancho" Villa.
Free-colored militias were an important and at times critical organization in Colonial Mexico. Prior to the eighteenth century, Spain's territories in the Americas were mainly defended through a series of Spanish military units being based in strategic coastal port cities and important economic centers. While these groups began to integrate themselves into the official Spanish colonial militaries, free-colored militias have been reluctantly Album) since the-mid sixteenth century.
Palenques, or run away slave communities, would often initiate slavery uprising in various cities and towns in New Spain, which made the colonial Spanish authorities uneasy about arming any free colored individuals. Given this social context, the racial climate in which these free-colored militias first appeared was a hostile one, and the first militias often had conflicts within them between their free-colored and white commanders.
The experiences of militias in urban areas was vastly different than those in rural communities, and the role, influence, and duties of militias in the early 17th century were not the same as those Album) a century later.
The critical stage for militia growth was duringwhere there was an increase of the militias responsibilities and they gained a considerable amount of autonomy over their own affairs. Free-colored militias were structured to follow the tercio organizational model that was used by Spanish Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties.
Free-colored militias under the tercio system were headed by a sargento mayor major who became the senior operating officer in militias. Under the sargento mayor were the junior officers, which included one captain and alferez lieutenant per company, who were also aided by an ayudante adjutant and subteniente second lieutenant after they were incorporated into the system after The captain had supreme authority within their company, only reporting to the sargento mayor when he could not control matters of the company.
The alferez coordinated affairs with his captain and was next in line in command in his absence. Below the junior officers were ranking NCO's and up to four sergeants served per company. A cabo corporal was assigned to lead each squad of 25 soldiers.
These NCO's were responsible for discipline of the soldiers and maintaining a limited record of individuals. Their salaries came from the royal treasuries, alongside occasional supplementation by private contributions of prominent individuals. While the terms pardos, mulatos, negros and morenos were commonly used under the caste system that was in place during this era, their use in this context is much more complex and who exactly qualified as who was a very fluid process, dependent on the social context of the time and place.
Free-colored soldiers refused to leave their posts and they dispatched to the capital in protests to defend their racially integrated organizations. This later inspired the communities other free-colored people to protests what they saw as other aggressions by the government, such as increasing tribute burdens.
While some of the previous examples are historical, the current official view on the existence of such militias in Mexico, when they are not backed by the government,  has been to always label them as illegal and to combat them in a military and a political way. Modern examples on the Mexican view on militias are the Chiapas conflict against the EZLN  and against the EPR in Guerrero,  where the government forces combated the upraised militias.
And in a more recent case when civilian self-defence militias appeared during the Mexican war on drugs,  the government regulated them and transformed the militias in to Rural federal forces and those who resisted were combated and imprisoned. From the Treaty of Waitangi in until small detachments of British Imperial troops based in New Zealand were the only military. This changed as a result of the Flagstaff War with the colonial government passing a Militia Act on 25 March Service in the militia was compulsory.
Many localized militia saw service, together with British Imperial troops, during the New Zealand Wars. In the late nineteenth century a system of local Volunteer militias evolved throughout the country. These were semi-trained but uniformed and administered by a small number of regular "Imperial" officers. Militias have played an important role supporting Pakistan's Military since the Indo-Pakistani War of when Pakistan, with the support of militias, was able to gain control of the region which is now known as Azad Kashmir.
Currently Pakistani citizens forming militias from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province are participating in the 'war on terror'. Article XVI, Section 4 of the Philippines Constitution states: "The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo military training and serve as may be provided by law. Portugal had a long tradition in the use of militias for national defense.
Between the 12th and 16th centuries, the municipal militias — composed of spearmenpikemenhorsemen, slingers, javelineers, archers, crossbowmen and later arquebusiers — constituted the main component of the Portuguese Royal Armytogether with smaller military forces from the Kingthe military orders and the feudal lords.
The Portuguese Army was then organized in three lines, with the 2nd and 3rd being militia forces. The 2nd line was made of the auxiliary troops, also militia units with the role of regional defense. In the end of the 18th century, the auxiliary troops were renamed "Militias". Still in the 19th century, the Militia units also had an important role in the Liberal Warswith the majority of those troops fighting on the side of King Miguel.
Besides the regular militias, a number of volunteer militia units were formed to fight on both sides of the war. However, the National Guard revealed itself an ineffective and undisciplined force. Their units became highly politicized, being involved in a number of conspiracies and coups. The National Guard having less and less confidence from the authorities, became extinct interminating a long tradition of national militias in Portugal.
During the 20th century, some experiments with militia type forces were made. From tothe Portuguese Army was organized as a militia army. Also, inthe Estado Novo regime created the Portuguese Legion as a political volunteer militia, dedicated to the fight against the enemies of country and of the social order.
From World War II, the Portuguese Legion assumed the responsibility for civil defensethis becoming its main role during the Cold Waruntil its extinction in Neither the Russian Empirenor the Soviet Union ever had an organised force that could be equated to a militia.
Instead a form of organisation that predated the Russian state was used during national emergencies called Narodnoe Opolcheniye People's Regimentation. Although these spontaneously created popular forces had participated in several major wars of the Russian Empire, including in combat, they were not obligated to serve for more than one year, and notably departed for home during the campaign in Germany.
On only one occasion, during the military history of the Soviet Unionthe Narodnoe Opolcheniye was incorporated into the regular forces of the Red Armynotably in Leningrad and Moscow. The term Militsiya in Russia and former Communist Bloc nations was specifically used to refer to the civilian police forceand should not be confused with the conventional western definition of militia.
The term, as used in this context, dated from post-revolutionary Russia in late and was intended to draw a distinction between the new Soviet law enforcement agencies and the disbanded Tsarist police. In some of these states militia was renamed back to police such as Ukraine while in the other states it remains such as Belarus. The first militias formed in Sri Lanka were by Lankan Kings, who raised militia armies for their military campaigns both within and outside the island.
This was due to the reason that the Kings never maintained a standing army instead had a Royal Guard during peacetime and formed a militia in wartime. When the Portuguese who were the first colonial power to dominate the island raised local militias under the command of local leaders known as Mudaliyars. These militias took part in the many Portuguese campaigns against the Lankan Kings.
The Dutch continued to employ these militias but due to their unreliability tended to favor employing Swiss and Malay mercenaries in their campaigns in the island. The British Empire then ousted the Dutch from the coastal areas of the country, and sought to conquer the independent Kandyan Kingdom. Inthe British became the first foreign power to raise a regular unit of Sinhalese with British officers, which was named the 2nd Ceylon Regiment, also known as the Sepoy Corps.
It fought alongside British troops in the Kandyan wars. After the Matale Rebellion led by Puran Appu inin which a number of Sinhalese recruits defected to the side of the rebels, the recruitment of Sinhalese to the British forces was temporarily halted and the Ceylon Regiments disbanded. Inthe Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers were raised as a militia, but soon became a military reserve force.
This became the Ceylon Defence Force in and consisted of militia units. With the escalation of the Sri Lankan Civil Warlocal villagers under threat of attack were formed into localized militia to protect their families and homes. According to the LTTE's then head of police, the force was to be assigned to tasks such as rehabilitation, construction, forest conservation and agriculture, but would also be used to battle the Sri Lankan military if the need arose.
The Janjaweed militia Album) of armed Arab Muslims fighting for the government in Khartoum against non-Arab Muslim "rebels". They are active in the Darfur region of western Sudan and also in eastern Chad. According to Human Rights Watch these partisans are responsible for abuses including war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing.
As ofthe Swedish Home Guard consists of 22, organized into 40 light infantry battalions of — Guardsmen. These battalions are then organised into companiesusually one for every municipality. The main task of the battalions is to guard vital military and civilian installations throughout the country.
Inthe Rapid Response units numbered around 5, soldiers of the total of 42, As ofthe majority of the force, 17, out of 22, soldiers will be in Rapid Response units. The decrease in number of troops comes with an equal increase in quality and modern equipment. These units are motorized and are ready to be mobilized more often, than other Home Guard units.
Rapid response units have more combat tasks compared to the rest of the Home Guard, including escort duties. Some battalions located near the coast also have marine companies equipped with Combat Boat A few battalions have recently set up 'specialized' companies to evaluate the possibility to add new abilities to the Home Guard.
One of the best known and ancient militias is the Swiss Armed Forces. The " militia principle " of public duties is central to Swiss political culture and not limited to military issues. For example, in most municipalities it is common to serve as a conscript fire fighter in the Compulsory Fire Department. Article It is primarily organised according to the principle of a militia. Inthe number of soldiers was reduced toincluding reservists, amounting to some 5.
However, the Swiss Militia continues to consist of most of the adult male population with voluntary participation by women who are required to keep an assault rifle at home and to periodically engage in combat and marksmanship training.
The Syrian National Defense Force was formed out of pro-government militias. They receive their salaries and their military equipment from the government   and as of numbers aroundUnlike the Syrian ArmyNDF soldiers are allowed to take loot from battlefields, which can then be sold on for extra money.
The obligation to serve in the militia in England derives from a common law tradition, and dates back to Anglo-Saxon times. The tradition was that all able-bodied males were liable to be called out to serve in one of two organisations. These were the posse comitatusan ad hoc assembly called together by a law officer to apprehend lawbreakers, and the fyrd a military body intended to preserve internal order or defend the locality against an invader.
The latter developed into the militia, and was usually embodied by a royal warrant. With the decay of the feudal system and the military revolution of the 16th century, the militia began to become an important institution in English life.
It was organised on the basis of the shire countyand was one of the responsibilities of the Lord Lieutenanta royal official usually a trusted nobleman. Each of the county hundreds was likewise the responsibility of a Deputy Lieutenantwho relayed orders to the justices of the peace or magistrates. Every parish furnished a quota of eligible men, whose names were recorded on muster rolls.
Likewise, each household was assessed for the purpose of finding weapons, armour, horses, or their financial equivalent, according to their status. The militia was supposed to be mustered for training purposes from time to time, but this was rarely done. The militia regiments were consequently ill-prepared for an emergency, and could not be relied upon to serve outside their own counties.
This state of affairs concerned many people. Consequently, an elite force was created, composed of members of the militia who were prepared to meet regularly for military training and exercise. These were formed into trained band regiments, particularly in the City of Londonwhere the Artillery Ground was used for training. The trained bands performed an important role in the English Civil War on the side of parliament, in marching to raise the siege of Gloucester 5 September Except for the London trained bands, both sides in the Civil War made little use of the militia, preferring to recruit their armies by other means.
As successful English settlement of North America began to take place in in the face of the hostile intentions of the powerful Spanish, and of the native populations, it became immediately necessary to raise militia amongst the settlers. The militia in Jamestown saw constant action against the Powhatan Federation and other native polities. In the Virginia Company 's other outpost, Bermudafortification began immediately in A Spanish attack in was repulsed by two shots fired from the incomplete Castle Islands Fortifications manned by Bermudian Militiamen.
In the 17th Century, however, Bermuda's defence was left entirely in the hands of the Militia. In addition to requiring all male civilians to train and serve in the militia of their Parish, the Bermudian Militia included a standing body of trained artillerymen to garrison the numerous fortifications which ringed New London St.
This standing body was created by recruiting volunteers, and by sentencing criminals to serve as punishment. The Bermudian militiamen were called out on numerous occasions of war, and, on one notable occasion, to quell rioting privateers.
The Militia in Bermuda came to include a Troop of Horse mounted infantry and served alongside volunteers and from a small body of regulars. This resulted from the build-up of the regular army Bermuda Garrison along with Bermuda's development as the headquarters and dockyard of the North America and West Indies Station of the Royal Navywhich made the militia seem excess to need.
Vast sums of the Imperial defence expenditure were lavished on fortifying Bermuda during the Nineteenth Century and the British Government cajoled, implored, begged, and threatened the colonial legislature for 80 years before it raised a militia and volunteer units in and respectively.
Although the militia had historically been an infantry force, many units in Britain had been re-tasked as militia artillery from the s onward due to the increased importance of the coastal artillery defences and the new militia unit in Bermuda followed suit. Titled the Bermuda Militia Artilleryit was badged and uniformed as part of the Royal Artillery, and tasked with the garrison artillery role, manning coastal batteries. As in Britain, recruitment was of volunteers who engaged for terms of service, whereas the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps was organised on the same lines as volunteer rifle corps in Britain.
Recruitment to the BVRC was restricted to whites, but Intelligence Vs Nonsense - Fine Arts Militia - Fine Arts Militia (CD BMA recruited primarily coloured those who were not entirely of European heritage other ranks, though its officers were all white until In British India, a special class of militia was established in This took the form of the Frontier Corpswhich consisted of locally recruited full-time auxiliaries under British officers. Their role combined the functions of tribal police and border guards deployed along the North-West Frontier.
After the Frontier Corps became part of the modern Pakistan Army. Until the Glorious Revolution in the Crown and Parliament were in strong disagreement.
The English Civil War left a rather unusual military legacy. Both Whigs and Tories distrusted the creation of a large standing army not under civilian control.
The former feared that it would be used as an instrument of royal tyranny. The latter had memories of the New Model Army and the anti-monarchical social and political revolution that it brought about. Both preferred a small standing army under civilian control for defensive deterrence and to prosecute foreign wars, a large navy as the first line of national defence, and a militia composed of their neighbours as additional defence and to preserve domestic order.
Consequently, the English Bill of Rights declared, amongst other things: "that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law The Crown still in the British constitution controls the use of the army.
This ensures that officers and enlisted men swear an oath to a politically neutral head of state, and not to a politician. While the funding of the standing army subsists on annual financial votes by parliament, the Mutiny Actsuperseded by the Army Act, and now the Armed Forces Act is also renewed on an annual basis by Parliament.
With the creation of the British Empiremilitias were also raised in the colonies, where little support could be provided by regular forces. Overseas militias were first raised in JamestownVirginiaand in Bermudawhere the Bermuda Militia followed over the next two centuries a similar trajectory to that in Britain. The Scottish navy was incorporated into the Royal Navy.
The Scottish military as opposed to naval forces merged with the English, with pre-existing regular Scottish regiments maintaining their identities, though command of the new British Army was from England. How this affected militias either side of the border is unclear. The Militia Act of created a more professional force. Better records were kept, and the men were selected by ballot to serve for longer periods; specific provision was made for members of the Religious Society of FriendsQuakersto be exempted, as conscientious objectorsfrom compulsory enlistment in the militia.
Proper uniforms and better weapons were provided, and the force was 'embodied' from time to time for training sessions. The militia was widely embodied at various times during the French and Napoleonic Wars. It served at several vulnerable locations, and was particularly stationed on the South Coast and in Ireland. A number of camps were held at Brightonwhere the militia regiments were reviewed by the Prince Regent.
This is the origin of the song "Brighton Camp". The militia could not be compelled to serve overseas, but it was seen as a training reserve for the army, as bounties were offered to men who opted to 'exchange' from the militia to the regular army. The Parliament of Ireland passed an act in raising regiments of militia in each county and county corporate, Intelligence Vs Nonsense - Fine Arts Militia - Fine Arts Militia (CD.
Membership was restricted to Protestants between the ages of 16 and Induring the Napoleonic Warsthe Irish militia were reorganised to form thirty-seven county and city regiments. While officers of the reorganised force were Protestant, membership of the other ranks was now made available to members of all denominations.
In the late 17th century came calls for the resurrection of militia in Scotland that had the understated aim of protecting the rights of Scots from English oppression. The old traditional system continued, so that militia regiments only existed in some places. This was resented by some and the Militia Club, soon to become the Poker Clubwas formed to promote the raising of a Scottish militia.
This and several other Edinburgh clubs became the crucible of the Scottish Enlightenment. The Militia Act empowered Scottish Lord Lieutenants to raise and command militia regiments in each of the "Counties, Stewartries, Cities, and Places" under their jurisdiction. Although muster rolls were prepared as late asthe element of compulsion was abandoned, and the militia transformed into a volunteer force, revived by the Militia Act of It was intended to be seen as an alternative to the army.
Men would volunteer and undertake basic training for several months at an army depot. Thereafter, they would return to civilian life, but report for regular periods of military training usually on the weapons ranges and an annual two-week training camp. In return, they would receive military pay and a financial retainer, a useful addition to their civilian wage. Of course, many saw the annual camp as the equivalent of a paid holiday. The militia thus appealed to agricultural labourers, colliers and the like, men in casual occupationswho could leave their civilian job and pick it up again.
Until the militia were an entirely infantry force, but from that year a number of county infantry regiments were converted to artillery and new ones raised.
In the militia of Anglesey and Monmouthshire were converted to engineers. Under the reformsintroduced by Secretary of State for War Hugh Childers inthe remaining militia infantry regiments were redesignated as numbered battalions of regiments of the line, ranking after the two regular battalions.
Typically, an English, Welsh or Scottish regiment would have two militia battalions the 3rd and 4th and Irish regiments three numbered 3rd—5th. The militia must not be confused with the volunteer units created in a wave of enthusiasm in the second half of the nineteenth century. In contrast with the Volunteer Forceand the similar Yeomanry Cavalrythey were considered rather plebeian. The militia was transformed into the Special Reserve by the military reforms of Haldane in the reforming post Liberal government.
In the militia infantry battalions were redesignated as "reserve" and a number were amalgamated or disbanded. Numbered Territorial Force battalions, ranking after the Special Reserve, were formed from the volunteer units at the same time. Altogether, infantry battalions, 33 artillery regiments and two engineer regiments of special reservists were formed. The special reserve units remained in Britain throughout the First World Warbut their rank and file did not, since the object of the special reserve was to supply drafts of replacements for the overseas units of the regiment.
The original militiamen soon disappeared, and the battalions simply became training units. The Special Reserve reverted to its militia designation inthen to Supplementary Reserve inthough the units were effectively placed in "suspended animation" until disbanded in The name was briefly revived in the Military Training Actin the aftermath of the Munich Crisis. Leslie Hore-BelishaSecretary of State for War, wished to introduce a limited form of conscriptionnot known in peacetime Britain since the militia of the early 19th century and previously.
It was thought that calling the conscripts 'militiamen' would make this more acceptable, as it would render them distinct from the rest of the army.
Only single men aged 20 up to the day before their 22nd birthday were to be conscripted, for six months full-time training before discharge into the reserve with a free suit of civilian clothing. Although the first intake was called up in late Julythe declaration of war on 3 September entailed implementation of full-time conscription for all men aged 18—41, superseding the militia, never to be revived.
Three units still maintain their militia designation in the British Army. Additionally, the Atholl Highlanders are a ceremonial infantry militia maintained by the Duke of Atholl —they are the only legal private army in Europe. Various other part-time, home defence organisations have been raised during times of crisis or perceived threat, although without the word "militia" in their title.
These have included:. The various non-state paramilitary groups involved in the 20th-century conflicts in Northern Ireland and the island of Irelandsuch as the various Irish Republican Army groups and loyalist paramilitaries, could also be described as militias and are occasionally referred to as such.
Created as a non-partisan force to defend Northern Ireland "against armed attack or sabotage", it eventually peaked at 11 battalions with 7, men and women. Inhe appeared on " Kool Thing ", a song by the alternative rock band Sonic Youthand along with Flavor Flavhe sang on George Clinton 's song "Tweakin'", which appears on his album The Cinderella Theory.
The specific sampling is Ridenhour counting off the numbers one to nine on the track "Shut 'Em Down". In Septemberhe launched a multi-format "supersite" on the web site Rapstation. The site includes a TV and radio station with original programming, prominent hip hop DJs, celebrity interviews, free MP3 downloads the first was contributed by multi-platinum rapper Cooliodownloadable ringtones by ToneThissocial commentary, current events, and regular features on turning rap careers into a viable living.
Sincehe has been one of the most vocal supporters of peer-to-peer file sharing in the music industry. Miller a. DJ Spookyand also turned up on The Go! Team 's album Proof of Youth on the track "Flashlight Fight. He also appeared on Brother Ali 's album, Us. Chuck D is known for his powerful rapping. How to Rap says he "has a powerful, resonant voice that is often acclaimed as one of the most distinct and impressive in hip-hop ". Chuck often comes up with a title for a song first.
Chuck listed his favourite rap albums in Hip Hop Connection : AStraight Outta Compton 9. Boogie Down ProductionsCriminal Minded 8. Stetsasonic, In Full Gear 5. DreThe Chronic 3. Eric B. At one point, Chuck bristles a bit at the term "African-American. Besides, he says, having been born in the United States and lived his whole life here, he doesn't consider himself African. Being in Public Enemy has given him the chance to travel around the world, an experience that really opened his eyes and his mind.
He says visiting Africa and experiencing life on a continent where the majority of people are Black gave him a new perspective and helped him get in touch with his own history.
He also credits a trip to the ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza with helping him appreciate the relative smallness of man. Ridenhour is politically active; he co-hosted Unfiltered on Air America Radiotestified before Congress in support of peer-to-peer MP3 sharing, and was involved in a rap political convention.
He has continued to be an activistpublisher, lecturer, and producer. Addressing the negative views associated with rap music, he co-wrote the essay book Fight the Power: Rap, Race, and Reality with Yusuf Jah.
He argues that "music and art and culture is escapism, and escapism sometimes is healthy for people to get away from reality", but sometimes the distinction is blurred and that's when "things could lead a young mind in a direction.
Despite Chuck D and Public Enemy's success, Chuck D claims that popularity or public approval was never a driving motivation behind their work. He is admittedly skeptical of celebrity status, revealing in a interview with BOMB Magazine that, "The key for the record companies is to just keep making more and more stars, and make the ones who actually challenge our way of life irrelevant.
The creation of celebrity has clouded the minds of most people in America, Europe and Asia. It gets people off the path they need to be on as individuals. In an interview with Le Monde published January 29, Chuck D stated that rap is devolving so much into a commercial enterprise, that the relationship between the rapper and the record label is that of slave to a master.
He believes that nothing has changed for African-Americans since the debut of Public Enemy and, although he thinks that an Obama-Clinton alliance is great, he does not feel that the establishment will allow anything of substance to be accomplished. He stated that French President Nicolas Sarkozy is like any other European elite: he has profited Intelligence Vs Nonsense - Fine Arts Militia - Fine Arts Militia (CD the murder, rape, and pillaging of those less fortunate and he refuses to allow equal opportunity for those men and women from Africa.
In this article, he defended a comment made by Professor Griff in the past that he says was taken out of context by the media. The real statement was a critique of the Israeli government and its treatment of the Palestinian people. Chuck D stated that it is Public Enemy's belief that all human beings are equal. In an interview with the magazine N'Digo published in Junehe spoke of today's mainstream urban music seemingly relishing the addictive euphoria of materialism and sexismperhaps being the primary cause of many people harboring resentment towards the genre and its future.
However, he has expressed hope for its resurrection, saying "It's only going to be dead if it doesn't talk about the messages of life as much as the messages of death and non-movement", citing artists such as NYOilM. They're just not placing their career in the hands of some major corporation. He said, "I talked about the wall not only just dividing the U.
But Arizona, it's like, come on. Now they're going to enforce a law that talks about basically racial profiling. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Fine Arts Militia. American rapper and producer. Hip hop political hip-hop rap metal. Rapper publisher lecturer activist record producer. Public Enemy PE 2. Main article: Public Enemy discography. Chuck D: Lyrics of a Rap Revolutionary.
Although the Fine Arts Militia is led by Public Enemy's Chuck D, don't expect a PE-style sonic onslaught of pummeling samples and mile-a-minute rhymes. Brian Hardgroove is in musical charge here, creating soundscapes that marry elements of funk, rock, and jazz in varying proportions. In these more musically straightforward surroundings, Chuck D is at his most direct, dropping all pretense in 8/ fine arts militia we are gathered here feat. chuck d. cd. rap koch records upc: release date: 3/25/ $ pre-owned. Building a funky, intelligent hybrid of spoken word, hip-hop, and rock, the members of the Fine Arts Militia aren't new to the music scene. The five-man group was .
What PEople are saying about "FINE ARTS MILITIA - We Are Gathered Here" If hip-hop seems to bother you nowadays because it lacks lyrical content, then you need to consider this as a definite alternative. Unlike the usual P.E. or mistachuck style, this venture though unleashes the sounds borderlining metal. Explore releases from the Militia label. Discover what's missing in your discography and shop for Militia releases.
View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the CD release of Fine Arts Militia on Discogs. Label: Slam Jamz - KOC-CD,Koch Records - KOC-CD • Format: CD Album /5(4).
Fine Arts Militia, Chuck D - Fine Arts Militia - We Are Gathered Here Fine Arts Militia Format: Audio CD. out of 5 stars 4 ratings. first song so far, but so far, so good. Excellent lyrics/spoken word with musical background. If you like his solo album as Mistachuck, you should like this. Read more. 2 people found this helpful /5(4). 1.) The Sword and Sovereignty: The Constitutional Principles of “the Militia of the several States”, Front Royal, Virginia CD ROM Edition , by Dr. Edwin Vieira, Jr., pages 2.) EN — ACT XXV, Provision to bee made for Amunition, ATT A GRAND ASSEMBLY, HELD AT JAMES CITTIE, MARCH 7, , in Laws of Virginia, Volume 1, at
Militia. 1, likes · 2 talking about this. Northeast PA's best high octane rock band.
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